WHERE DRAWED BARMALES
The creation of Aibolit by Korney Chukovsky was inspired by Hugh Lofting's book about Doctor Dolittle, who knows the language of animals.
The prototype of the hero was the doctor Tsemakh Shabad, whom the writer met in 1912 in Vilnius. He never refused the sick, did not take money from the poor, was equally attentive to respectable citizens and vagrants, and also treated animals: horses, cows, cats, dogs.
But where did the villain Barmaley come from? The writer Lev Uspensky heard this story from Korney Ivanovich himself.
Once Chukovsky, along with the artist Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, walking along the Petrogradskaya side, went out to Barmaleev Street.
"Who was this Barmaley, after whom the whole street was named?" - Dobuzhinsky was surprised. Chukovsky suggested: “Some of the empresses of the 18th century could have a healer or perfumer, an Englishman or a Scot. He could bear the name Bromley: Bromleys are not uncommon there. On this small street, he could have a house. The street could have been called Bromleeva, and then … changed into Barmaleeva"
But the artist was not satisfied with the version: “Not true! - he said. - I know who Barmaley was. He was a terrible robber. This is how he looked.”And Dobuzhinsky immediately drew a“bloodthirsty and merciless”villain on a piece of paper.
So the image of the main enemy of Aibolit was born, whom Chukovsky, they say, hated with all his heart.
In fact, the history of the name of this street in St. Petersburg is quite prosaic. In the middle of the 18th century, a police warrant officer Andrei Barmaleev settled here, in a small wooden house, together with his wife and children.
On maps, this name of the street was first recorded in 1798 - perhaps when the house was already owned by the son of Andrei Ivanovich Tikhon.
One of the versions of the origin of their surname is as follows. In the dictionary of Vladimir Dahl there is a verb “to barmolit” - “to mumble, lisp, lisp, speak indistinctly”. A person with indistinct diction could well have received the nickname Barmoley, unstressed "o" then often turned into "a", and the surname could be written as Barmaleev.
WHAT LANGUAGE WAS HOTTABYCH IN
The tale-tale of Lazar Lagin "Old Man Hottabych" about the pioneer Volka and the genie Gassan Abdurahman ibn Hottab had three original editions: 1940, 1953 and 1955.
Changes were made there in accordance with the political situation. So, in one of the versions of the comrade who found himself in India, the hero is turned into slavery, in the other, after learning that Zhenya is Russian, they sing "Katyusha" with him and give him bananas.
The underwater mine, caught by Hottabych and his brother Omar, first bears the inscription Made in England, later - Made in USA. Finally, in the latest version, the former Nepman Feoktist Khapugin is replaced by the evil American Vandendalles.
An interesting moment is associated with a spell that helps the genie to work miracles. In the first edition, it looks like this: “Hottabych, groaning, got up on his feet, tore thirteen hairs out of his beard, tore them finely, shouted out some strange word“lechodil painted”and, exhausted, sank directly onto the sawdust covering the arena.”
In subsequent editions "lehododilikraskalo" disappears, only "some strange and very long word" remains. Why did the spell fail?
“Leho dodi lycras kahlo, stump shabes nekabelo” - words from the Jewish Shabbat song and they mean: “Go, my friend, towards the bride, we will meet the face of Saturday”.
Only a desperate daredevil could afford such a thing in a children's book (which, by the way, was awarded the Stalin Prize) in the midst of the struggle against cosmopolitanism.
But the spell does not end there.
“May I be allowed to know what you, O diamond of my soul, mean by this unknown word to me,“balda”? - inquired old man Hottabych with curiosity. Volka blushed like a tomato from embarrassment: "Do you understand … how to tell you … uh-uh … well, in general, the word" balda "means" wise man "."
This joke is actually quite true. In Hebrew, "baal dat" means … that's right, "sage"! And the last thing. In Jerusalem, at the very Jaffa gate, there is the square of Omar Ibn Hottab - the first caliph of Islam. That is, if you remember, the name of the old man Hottabych's brother was.
Where did the Jewish motives come from in the Soviet story? It's simple. Lazar Ginzburg (the pseudonym Lagin - from the first syllables of the name and surname) was born in 1903 in Vitebsk, where before the revolution there were 51 synagogues in 17 Orthodox churches, and what was gibberish for readers, for him was an organic part of the culture absorbed from childhood.
WHOM PIERO LONGED
Everyone knows that The Golden Key is based on Carlo Collodi's Pinocchio. (Where Pinocchio came from, we talked about here.)
First, Alexei Tolstoy took up the translation of the fairy tale, but, in his words, it turned out "boring and bland". And the writer gave himself free rein. He changed the character of the hero, added storylines, introduced Tortilla, Malvina, Pierrot, Duremar, changed the Fox to the fox Alice, expanded the role of Karabas (in Kollodi - Manjafako) and made him a sharply negative hero, etc.
When the book came out in 1936, as usual, a lot of versions appeared on the topic: what did the author mean?
Contemporaries agreed: the villain Karabas was written off from the director Vsevolod Meyerhold, who really had a difficult character. And the "puppet theater" symbolized his attitude towards artists.
Here is what Konstantin Stanislavsky wrote about his colleague: "A talented director tried to close with himself the artists who in his hands were simple clay for modeling beautiful groups, mise-en-scenes, with the help of which he realized his interesting ideas."
In addition, Meyerhold wore a long scarf, the end of which he often tucked into his pocket. Karabas, on the other hand, is "a man with a beard so long that he would put it in his pocket so that it would not interfere with his walking."
After the revolution, the director got into the habit of wearing a Mauser and putting it on the table in front of him during rehearsals. At Karabas, the Mauser was replaced by a whip.
Duremar, apparently, was the closest associate of Meyerhold, Vladimir Soloviev, who had the pseudonym Voldemar Luccinius and had a tall and skinny figure.
In the cat Basilio and the fox Alice, contemporaries saw an inseparable poetic couple: Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Zinaida Gippius.
And Pierrot, constantly suffering from unhappy love for Malvina, is, of course, Alexander Blok.
Cross-cutting themes of shadows, swamps, encountered by the poet, are played up with might and main in Pierrot's rhymes (“we are sitting on a hummock where flowers grow”). And here is the image of the elusive Beautiful Lady: “Malvina is gone - my bride, she fled to foreign lands. I'm sobbing, I don't know where to go. Isn't it better to part with your puppet life."
It was quite obvious to contemporaries that this was an evil parody of the relationship between Blok and his wife Lyubov Mendeleeva.
Anna Akhmatova called it "settling accounts and a dissimilar libel." But, in accordance with the other words of the poetess: “If only you knew from what rubbish poetry grows without knowing shame,” a good children's book turned out from “libel”.
WHERE DO THE EXCESS OF CHICKEN LEGS
Here we will have a rather dark story about the character of many Russian fairy tales - a hut on chicken legs, where Baba Yaga lives and where Tsarevich Ivan usually wanders.
In some cartoons, these legs live their own lives: scratching, shifting, clenching their claws. In a word, they give an amusing and touching impression. Forget it.
Chicken (chicken) legs were the name of the Slavs fumigated with smoke hemp, on which the hut was placed. And the hut itself is a "house of the dead", a small log house with the ashes of the deceased. This is how the ancient Slavs buried their fellow tribesmen in the 6th-9th centuries.
From there, from the "hut of death", they believed, the direct road to the world of the dead - the underworld. In the fairy tale, the hut, turning now to the forest, then to Ivan, opens its door first to the world of the living, then to the world of the dead.
Alexandra Barkova, philologist, teacher of world mythology, interprets what is happening in fairy tales this way: “A hut on chicken legs is depicted standing either in the thicket of the forest (the center of another world), then at the edge, but then the entrance to it is from the forest, that is, from the world of death…
Baba Yaga inside such a hut seemed like a living corpse - she lay motionless and did not see a person who came from the world of the living (the living do not see the dead, the dead do not see the living). She learned about his arrival by the smell - "it smells of the Russian spirit" (the smell of the living is unpleasant for the dead)."
While we thought that Ivan only needed to defeat everyone and save someone, more difficult trials awaited him - to join the world of the dead.
For this, there were two ways: either to eat the mistress's dishes (food of the dead) or, oddly enough, to be eaten by it yourself.
After the test, the hero belonged to both worlds and acquired all sorts of magical qualities - in our opinion, he became a superman. It was no longer difficult to solve further tasks.
What did the appearance in history of the goblin, the brownie and the watery - read in the article "My Planet" Russian national evil spirits.