The situation with demography in Tatarstan, as in many regions of the country, leaves much to be desired. In January-November 2019, 39,119 children were born in the republic, which is 3,529 (8.3 percent) less than in the same period of the previous year.
“It is possible to enumerate the reasons for modern demographic trends for a long time,” Tatyana Larionova, Deputy Chairman of the State Council, head of the working group for monitoring the implementation of national projects and the deputy association “Merkhemet - Mercy”, comments on the situation. - Today, unfortunately, representatives of the generation of the 90s, in itself very small in number, even after getting married, often openly declare that they do not want to have children right away, and if they decide to become parents, then at a much older age than it was in earlier years. The factor of "delayed birth" of the first children has appeared, which means that there is less time left for the birth of subsequent children. So, in 1990, in Tatarstan, the age of women who gave birth to their first child averaged 25.8 years, and now it has increased by three years. The authorities are aware of the demographic problem, see the ways to solve it and began to allocate more funds to family policy."
This is primarily about the national project "Demography", adopted on the instructions of Russian President Vladimir Putin. According to the Ministry of Economy of Tatarstan, in the first three years (2019-2021) 14.1 billion rubles are planned to be allocated for the implementation of the project in the republic, including 7.5 billion rubles from the republican budget.
The most expensive part of the program is “Financial support for families at the birth of children”. 2.9 billion rubles were allocated for its implementation in 2019, while the annual financing of the entire project is 4.6 billion rubles. Most of the funds are intended for monthly payments in connection with the birth (adoption) of the first child before he reaches one and a half years. According to the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Republic of Tatarstan, this year 13.2 thousand people received such payments. Next year, the circle of recipients will expand due to the fact that families whose average per capita income does not exceed two (now 1.5) living wages and until the child reaches the age of three (now 1.5 years) will be able to apply for the payment.
We got to the villagers
Tatarstan is the only Russian region where, within the framework of the Demography project, social support is provided to women living in rural areas. If the mother of the first child has not reached the age of 25, she receives a lump sum of 50 thousand rubles. If a villager under the age of 29 gives birth to a third child, then she receives 100 thousand rubles. In 2018, more than two thousand rural women received material support, in 10 months of 2019 - 2302.
Did these measures affect fertility? According to the press service of the Ministry of Labor and Employment of the Republic, the share of births of the first children in the total number of newborns did not decrease compared to the same period in 2018, but remained at the same level - 38.9 percent, and the share of births of third children increased by 1.3 percent and amounted to 16.4 percent.
Tenths of a percent is, it would seem, quite a bit, unless you remember that behind them are hundreds of children who might not have been born at all!
By the decision of the President of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov, from January 1, 2020, the republic is introducing additional measures to support low-income large families. Each family member with five or more children will receive an average monthly allowance of 4,668 rubles. In addition, such families are completely exempt from parental fees for kindergarten.Starting next year, for children under three years old from families with an income per person below the subsistence level, electronic certificates for medicines in the amount of 10 thousand rubles a year are introduced. Almost 18 thousand children will receive them.
Low fertility is recognized as a nationwide problem. Young people regard having children as a purely personal matter and not as a "must-have program." But the tools of demographic and family policy are being improved, and the republic hopes for population growth in the coming years.