According to Russian laws, parental leave can be issued not only by the mother, but also by other family members - father, grandparents, uncles and aunts, sisters and brothers, as well as cousins. But in practice, the option even with his own grandmother is very rare. However, as the deputy of the State Duma, the chairman of the union of trade unions of Russia SOTSPROF Sergey Vostretsov told NEWS.ru, in the conditions of the pension reform this opportunity can begin to be used more widely than before.
Decree (maternity leave) is maternity leave, and only the mother of the child can take it. Maternity leave lasts 140 days (70 days before and 70 days after childbirth), during which time the woman receives her full salary. At the end of this period, parental leave begins. And now both dads and grandparents can already register it. It is provided until the child reaches three years of age. In this case, the allowance is paid until he turns one and a half years. In this case, it is appropriate to use the expression "grandmother on maternity leave."
According to Tatyana Maleva, director of the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, most modern grandmothers prefer to help a young family in an optional mode, and "to go and sit down with a child completely at home is yesterday." Perhaps the issue of grandmothers on maternity leave will be relevant in small towns and villages. But for a big city, according to the expert, this option is not good even from the point of view of logistics: the older generation has long since departed with their grown-up children, and it is extremely inconvenient to travel across Moscow or any other large city to perform duties instead of mom. There are more compelling reasons why city grandmothers tend to prefer work.
Author: Tatiana Maleva [Director of the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting, RANEPA]
Now, sociologically, we see that grandmothers are still young women who are addressed as “girl” on the bus. They are eager to work, especially urban grandmothers. Plus, they are being forced to work, raising their retirement age. A woman of pre-retirement age, if she has a good job, will never be interrupted for maternity leave, because she knows that after leaving such a vacation, she will not get this good job. She will go on maternity leave only if her daughter or daughter-in-law has received the post of Bill Gates.
According to the expert, the option of taking leave to look after grandchildren is relevant for women with low-paid jobs - one that is not a pity to lose.
However, State Duma deputy, chairman of the Russian trade union association SOTSPROF Sergei Vostretsov fundamentally disagrees with the conclusions of Tatyana Maleva. From his point of view, for women of pre-retirement age, this is a good option to legally raise grandchildren and not interrupt their work experience.
Author: Sergey Vostretsov [Chairman of the Russian Trade Union Association SOTSPROF]
The situation when a grandmother takes parental leave is very good for a family. And today, in the context of the pension reform, this is also an excellent opportunity for grandmothers not only to invest their time in their grandchildren, but also to receive money for it. At the same time, work experience is not interrupted, everything is legal. A grandmother on maternity leave means that the family is correct, with a healthy environment. The continuity of generations is respected. The state also allows young people to go to work and earn money, to support their families with dignity. Still, it is easier for young people to find high-paying jobs than pre-retirees.
Professor of the Department of Labor and Social Policy of the Institute of Civil Service and Management (IGSU) Alexander Shcherbakov agrees that such a turn of events works in favor of the mother of the child, who, from the point of view of a professional career, has the opportunity to go to work earlier. This is necessary for a young woman to “stay in the current situation; to be, as they say, in a clip, in good working shape. " But all this is relevant only if she really has a good position that is worth holding on to, Tatiana Maleva believes.
Moms have problems in the labor market. Decent, well-paid jobs are rare. And for this reason, mothers, even after three years on parental leave, are not particularly eager to work. The salary of 40 thousand rubles, and this is the average salary in the country, does not stimulate them to interrupt their leave to care. It makes no sense to go to your workplace: a woman will pay for a kindergarten or a nanny, and she will have almost nothing left of this money, - the director of the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting of the RANEPA is convinced.
In turn, the director of the psychological center "Personality" Lyudmila Polyanova looks at the problem differently. She is sure that there are no advantages to having a grandmother with the baby and there cannot be. If a mother puts her career at the forefront, then, from the point of view of Polyanova, this indicates the neurotic functioning of a young woman: she is obviously afraid that, after taking a break for maternity leave, she will lose her job, miss a promotion. However, the expert believes, a choice must be made: either a career or motherhood. Everything else is a surrogate. A grandmother should not replace her mother and cannot do this: the smell and heartbeat of the mother, in whose womb the baby spent nine months, is the basis of the child's psychological health. If the “mother-child” relationship is interrupted ahead of time, then the child later, in adulthood, will become a regular in the psychotherapist's offices, the director of the psychological center is sure.
However, there is another point of view among mental health professionals. For example, family psychologist Natalya Panfilova says that in some circumstances it is better to find a compromise.
Author: Natalia Panfilova [family psychologist]
Of course, a grandmother is better than a nanny, and a mother is better than a grandmother. But I am opposed to something being done "at all costs." If a mother wants to continue her career or study, and she is told: “Sit with the child, you’re a mother!”, Then this is wrong. If there is an opportunity to act in a compromise, you must definitely try to find such an option.
All experts, without exception, are unanimous: it will not be soon for grandmothers to take parental leave on a massive scale. Most mothers are in no hurry to get to work because of low salaries; representatives of the older generation, in turn, are not particularly eager to sit at home with babies, because they are often passionate about their professional activities. Perhaps the pension reform will push those who do not value their jobs too much and, on the contrary, value their grandchildren to such a step. But being a “grandmother on maternity leave” is not a rest, “it is a significant burden and responsibility,” recalls expert Alexander Shcherbakov.