The swiftness with which, at the first stage of the Great Patriotic War, the Nazis moved into the eastern regions of the USSR, sharply raised the issue of removing the child population from the front-line territories before the country's leadership. The solution to this problem, along with the transfer of old people, skilled workers, vital industrial production and material culture values to safe areas, was entrusted to the Evacuation Council, which was promptly created on June 24, 1941.
From a memo written on July 19, 1941, addressed to the Central Committee Secretary Alexander Shcherbakov, it becomes obvious that the evacuation of Moscow children was started on June 30, 1941, and in the first 19 days about 200,000 children of different ages were sent to the rear. Among the babies transported from the capital to the Moscow region, to the Ryazan region, to the Yaroslavl and Tula regions, there were also children from orphanages and boarding schools.
When, after a few weeks, it became obvious that the evacuation to nearby areas, organized according to the hasty plan of the Moscow Council, did not make any practical sense, the previously evacuated children began to be brought back to the white stone, in order to be sent to more reliable cities together with a new party.
Such places on the map of the USSR turned out to be the Urals, the Volga region and Central Asia, the authorities who were supposed to provide children with housing, food, medical care and upbringing and educational programs.
2,304 children from 16 Moscow boarding schools became residents of the Kazakh SSR during the war, and tens of thousands of children fell under the care of children's institutions in the Gorky, Molotovsk (Perm Territory), Novosibirsk and Chelyabinsk regions, Mordovia, Mari, Chuvash and Tatar ASSR.
Coherence of actions
The check, organized in mid-July 1941 by the School Department of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, demonstrated a lack of coordination in carrying out evacuation measures for children.
In the absence of a mobilization plan, the export of the younger generation of capitals was carried out with gross violations. Children on the trains did not have time to provide food and basic necessities; moreover, they were not accompanied by medical personnel. Incompetent people without pedagogical education were appointed as curators of children's groups, each of whom was responsible for 600 students.
These shortcomings during the evacuation of children contributed to an increase in the number of infectious diseases, a malfunction in the diet, poor compliance with sanitary standards, and even fatal accidents due to conniving pedagogical supervision.
The situation was no better in the children's accommodation centers, where similar problems were observed.
However, already on July 30, 1941, Vladimir Pavlyukov, who at that time held the post of secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee, reported to his superiors on correcting the shortcomings. The evacuation of children took on an orderly form, each of its participants knew their duties, the strict implementation of which facilitated the transportation of trains with children to the east. The Department of Childhood of the Moscow City Healthcare Department made sure that sick children did not fit into carriages with healthy ones, and doctors monitored the physical condition of both the first and second at the rate of one doctor for 500 babies.
By the time the Germans got close to Moscow, Vasily Pronin, at that time the chairman of the Moscow City Council, issued a decree on accelerating the evacuation of children and sending women with babies not employed in production to safe areas of the country; if they refused to leave their homes, the police could threaten them prosecution.
It could have been different
By the way, Vasily Pronin was involved in another important document, which researchers Ksenia Sak and Nikita Pivovarov mention in their works.
A few weeks before the Germans declared war, or rather on June 3, 1941, he handed over to Stalin a draft Decree of the USSR Council of People's Commissars "On the partial evacuation of the population of the city.Moscow in wartime”, in which he put forward the initiative to convene a special commission for the evacuation of citizens, military-economic key enterprises and important political institutions.
According to the document, a total of 1,040,000 people were supposed to be removed from the city, including 432,000 schoolchildren, 226,000 preschoolers, 101,000 inmates of kindergartens and nurseries, as well as 174,000 children with their mothers.
Evacuation was proposed to be carried out by rail and bus transport, for which the relevant departments had to be instructed to provide in their activities the possibility of emergency removal of a large number of people. In addition, it was recommended to equip in advance with everything necessary for life clubs, rest houses and other premises of the eastern regions of the country, where it was planned to transfer trains with evacuated children.
After examining Vasily Pronin's note, Supreme Commander-in-Chief Joseph Stalin imposed a resolution: “Consider your proposal on the“partial evacuation of the population of Moscow in wartime”untimely. I ask you to liquidate the evacuation commission and stop talking about evacuation. When it is necessary, and if necessary, to prepare the evacuation, the Central Committee and the Council of People's Commissars will notify you."
Sensations of children
Children who were evacuated, at first perceived it as an adventure with a change of place of residence, landscapes, circle of friends and occupations. Ramzia Mukhutdinova in her essay “The village of Bizyaki - the second home for the evacuees” noted that “in the Tatar village, the evacuees at first everything was new, and alien, and interesting. They watched with amazement how our grandparents … sit on the floor and read namaz."
But children, by virtue of psychology, quickly adapted to new realities, got used to local traditions, mastered languages and made new friends. Although they had a lot of free time, they still helped adults in everyday life, and teenagers also in production.
Supervision of street children
Those children who, by the will of fate during the evacuation, lost their parents, fell into the zone of special attention of the authorities, who were ordered to fight the increase in the number of street children and prevent neglect.
Orphaned children, according to the 1941 decree "On the arrangement of children left without parents", had to be involved in social and educational programs and distracted from the street.