According to Rosstat, as of January 1, 2019, the population was 146 million 793.7 thousand people, which is 86.7 thousand less than the figures for the previous year.
Which regions give rise to population growth, and which in the future may become “dying out?” The birth rate is headed by the Republic of Tyva (41.95 points) and three Caucasian regions - Chechnya (41.88 points), Ingushetia (37.30 points) and Dagestan (36.86 points).
Points were assigned to the regions based on the analysis of five criteria: “fertility”, “population growth”, “number of children per woman”, “number of artificial abortions”, as well as “level of social comfort for fertility”.
The last positions in this rating were occupied by the Leningrad (24.33), Pskov (25.45) and Magadan regions (25.79). One of the main reasons for the decline in the population is that women began to give birth to their first child about five years later.
The average age of a woman who becomes a mother for the first time is 26 years. In addition, the gap between the first and second child increased and amounted to 6-7 years. All this, according to doctors, increases the risks of having a child with pathologies and malformations.
President of the Russian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Vladimir Serov said that the best age for the first birth, from the point of view of gynecology, is 17-19 years, but taking into account the modern way of life, the optimal age for the first birth is 20-22 years.
Professor of the Department of Labor and Social Policy of the Institute of Civil Service and Management of the RANEPA Alexander Shcherbakov believes that “the more passive demographic behavior of women is explained by their desire, first of all, to satisfy their career ambitions and to strengthen their financial situation. And only then become a mother. As a result, many simply do not have time to give birth to more than one child."
Rosstat cited data that, unfortunately, are not encouraging. 36.8% of Russian women have one child, 26.5% of women have two children, 7% have three or more children, and almost 30% have no children.
Almost all experts agree that only a more active social policy of the state will make it possible to bring demographic indicators to a stable positive trend.