Today, parliamentarians continue to improve laws and make proposals that are designed to improve the safety and quality of children's camps. What has changed in the field of children's wellness and what can we expect for the next summer campaign?
IN 2018 ONLY CAMP APPROVED BY ROSPOTREBNADZOR WILL OPEN
At the end of 2016, amendments to several laws were adopted, which strengthened the control of regional authorities over health organizations and the responsibility of the camps themselves. In addition to the obvious responsibilities of feeding and looking after children, children's health organizations should have guards or security services, rescue posts in places where children swim, and also inform departments about their opening and planned hiking trips. How this should be carried out and what liability is envisaged for non-compliance with these norms are established by the regions.
In reality, this law works precisely in those regions where local authorities have changed the regulatory framework and increased the responsibility of the camp management, said Elena Popova, a member of the Federation Council Committee on Social Policy. But many problems remain, and the law on safe children's rest, she said, will be supplemented further.
It is intended to complement it, for example, amendments to the Law "On basic guarantees of the rights of the child in the Russian Federation." The legislative initiative was submitted to the State Duma by the vice-speaker of the chamber, Irina Yarovaya, and later 39 more parliamentarians joined her.
rightSPRAVKAV Russia 46 544 Recreation and Recreation Organizations for Children. Including 36 thousand day-stay camps at educational institutions, 2533 stationary camps, 609 sanitary and health-improving camps, slightly more than 2000 tent-type camps. The camp can be both a public institution and a private organization, for example, at a university, school, sports team, etc. The bill proposes to develop a model agreement at the federal level, which will be concluded between parents and the camp administration, regardless of the region where it is located. … The main provisions of the document will have to be approved not by the parliament, but by the federal executive branch. But it will definitely contain items related to the safety of children.
“In addition, regional departments responsible for children's recreation will have to post (in an impersonal form) on their websites parental requests - questions, complaints or gratitude - and answers to them. On the basis of these appeals, a rating of the camps can even be created in the future,”said Larisa Tutova, one of the authors of the bill, deputy chairman of the State Duma Committee on Education and Science.
One of the most time-consuming tasks that the bill sets before the regional authorities is to compile and publish on their websites lists of recommended tourist routes for children. Now (according to the law of 2016), the regions establish a notification procedure, in which the organizations of children's recreation and tourism must report where, when and for how long a tourist group of minors will go or make a trip to nature for children vacationing in the camp. This order changes the position of Irina Yarovaya's bill - the ministries of the subjects will have to post the lists of routes on the website, thereby, in fact, guaranteeing their safety.
“This is the most time consuming job. I think the streamlining of tourist routes for children will lead to the systematization, change and refinement of the routes,”Tutova said. “But the main task is to make children's tourism safe, to prevent all kinds of negative scenarios for the development of children's recreation,” she stressed.The application of the law still needs to be worked out so as not to create additional difficulties for the subjects, adds Popova.
NOT ALL CAMPS ARE IN HURRY TO GET OUT OF THE SHADOW
Regional ministries, again, according to the provisions of last year's law, must keep a register of health camps existing in the region. Those organizations that are not included in it have no right to invite children at all. However, some camps remain in the shadows. So, in 2017, 27 camps were closed, which did not inform the relevant departments about their opening.
“Why don't private camps strive to enter the registers? Because the quality of services may not meet the requirements that we set for them,”says Elena Popova.
It is in such organizations that violations of children's nutrition and sanitary standards are most often detected. And this problem needs to be addressed comprehensively, including with the help of new amendments to laws and mechanisms to support camps regardless of the form of ownership - both public and private.
But already in 2018, there should be changes in the field of accounting for children's health institutions.
A unified federal register of children's camps may appear, in which parents can choose a suitable camp located in any region. Now the information is scattered and is under the jurisdiction of different regional ministries, for example, education, youth policy, social development or others, which makes it difficult to find. The Ministry of Education and Science promises to launch a single resource where information about camps in all regions will be combined already in 2018, the senator said.
The total number of health camps for children has decreased. In 2017, children were accepted by a little more than 46.5 thousand health and recreation organizations, and in 2016 - 51.9 thousand.”According to the head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova, since the beginning of the year, not a single camp will be able to start accepting children until it receives a conclusion from the department. The document will confirm that the organization meets the sanitary-epidemiological and hygienic requirements.
There are enough such requirements. In the provisions of the SanPiN of Rospotrebnadzor, everything seems to be thought out - how eggs should be prepared for breakfast, furniture and plumbing in buildings, as well as many other unambiguous instructions. But in May, there was a mass poisoning in a children's camp in Izhevsk, and the authorities again asked the question: what do the children in the camps eat? Checks were carried out, and by mid-June 2017, Rospotrebnadzor had identified violations in 81 percent of children's health care institutions (a total of 28 thousand camps were checked). Violations concerned not only food, but also other aspects, including the placement of children, the equipment of the premises and the organization of water supply. In August 2016, violations were revealed in children's camps in almost the same number of children's recreation organizations - in 80 percent of the inspections carried out.
It turns out that checks are carried out, and the number of violations does not decrease. So how do you change this?
Firstly, it would be possible to involve the parents of those children who are resting in the camp in evaluating the nutrition of the parents, says Elena Popova: “Parents still come to visit their children and attend events. And active parents can simply be included in the interdepartmental commission proposed by the executive branch”.
A similar system operates for kindergartens and schools, the parliamentarian said, and parents even suggest suppliers with whom contracts are concluded, which will benefit both the quality of children's nutrition and the local budget.
And secondly, and this is the most important thing, we need support, not bureaucratization, with which both parliamentarians and social activists agree.
Excessive pressure on children's camps should not be allowed to lead to their closure, Federation Council Speaker Valentina Matvienko said at a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin.“It is very dangerous to bureaucratize or make excessive demands, because children's camps are opened not only by state structures, but also by enterprises, companies, so as not to discourage our business from organizing summer vacations as an important social direction,” Matvienko said.
In addition, the life of the camps would become easier if the issue of children's health improvement was regulated by one law, and not many legislative acts, says Galina Sukhoveiko, a member of the presidium of the Interregional Organization "Promotion of Children's Rest". This, in her opinion, would reduce the number of documents and checks that are developed and carried out by completely different bodies. Now the number of checks is off scale - in one of the municipal camps of Chuvashia in the summer of 2016 from various departments came about 200 times, she said.
THE STATE CAN HELP THE SANPING
rightIn 2017, 55 camps were closed through the courts for violating mandatory sanitary and epidemiological requirements, 13 cases were transferred to law enforcement agencies and 620 people were temporarily suspended from work. the total amount of fines for the summer campaign is more than 120 million rubles, according to a report published by Rospotrebnadzor in August. 26 children's camps were closed in 2017 due to the fact that their opening was recognized as unauthorized. For this reason, 67 camps were closed in 2016. It is especially difficult today to fulfill the requirements for the placement of children, since the material base of the camps is outdated, and the quality of the premises in which children spend their summer holidays is lame, parliamentarians agree.
“Some of those camps, which were previously financially supported by the state or the founders and were well equipped, are now either closed or insufficiently equipped. Of course, this base needs to be improved, to look for ways of additional funding,”said Deputy Tutova.
Now the regions are responsible for these issues, which have their own programs to support the infrastructure of the camps, but the efforts of the regions alone will not soon be able to equalize their financial situation, Elena Popova agrees.
Nevertheless, the foundation for this has been laid, she added. Today, all regions provide for a "children's budget", which is isolated from the general budget of the region and which can change from year to year, but not decrease, the parliamentarian said. It is designed for the infrastructure of childhood, where services are provided for children, including summer recreation.
“The time has come to ask each entity what it needs in terms of financing in order for the quality of the service to reach a level that is equally good regardless of the region. Such statistics could be collected by the Ministry of Education and Science,”the senator said.
At the same time, it is necessary to support all camps, regardless of the form of ownership, both departmental and private, our interlocutors emphasize. But how to do that?
In addition to direct allocation of funds from the federal budget, it is possible to support the camps in other ways, for example, benefits for electricity and utility bills, as well as land tax.
“Many camps are located in rural areas, and for them, as legal entities, these costs are sometimes unbearable,” explained Galina Sukhoveiko.
But in any case, one cannot do without the support of the federal center. For example, it is necessary to support the recreation of children who find themselves in difficult life situations. Since 2017, state funding for their recreation has been canceled and fell on the shoulders of the regions.
“In 2016, after lengthy conversations, the state allocated 4.6 trillion for the rest of children in difficult life situations, and this year, funding was expected in many regions, especially subsidized ones, but did not receive it,” Sukhoveiko said.
As a result, in 2017, compared to the previous year, the number of orphans rested in the camp decreased from 35 to 23 percent, and children with disabilities - from 10 to 7 percent, said Anna Kuznetsova, Commissioner for Children's Rights under the President of the Russian Federation at an expanded meeting of the State Duma Committee on issues of family, women and children.
NOT ONLY FEED, BUT DEVELOP
High-quality food, safety during hiking trips - this is what the innovations of the legislators were aimed at. But one more of the main tasks of the camp is to fill the rest, make it useful and developing. This is what educators and counselors are called to do, and more attention should be paid to the training of these personnel, Valentina Matvienko noted at a meeting of the Coordinating Council under the President of the Russian Federation on the implementation of the National Strategy for Action in the Interests of Children for 2012-2017.
right5 million 291 thousand children rested in camps in 2017. In February 2017, the Ministry of Labor approved the educational standard "Education Specialist". It applies to such professions that are in demand in children's camps, such as a social teacher, a senior counselor, an organizer teacher, an educator and some others. These specialists must have specialized education, secondary or higher, in the specialties of pedagogy, psychology, and social work.
But the professional standard does not directly affect the counselors who spend the most time with the children. Counselors are not required to study at a pedagogical university, to be its graduates or senior students. Today they are trained in counselor schools on the basis of universities, public organizations, companies organizing children's recreation, pedagogical teams (student associations).
Experts agree that it is unnecessary to impose such high demands on them, although there are talks about obliging them to receive specialized education. Moreover, sometimes it is even preferable that students not from pedagogical universities, but for example from technical ones, become counselors, says Senator Elena Popova. And it is precisely such students who will be able to captivate children with their future profession.
“A leader can be a person who does not have a pedagogical education, but who is interesting, active, who understands his future profession,” deputy Larisa Tutova also believes. “At the same time, he must definitely go through special courses in order to have a basis for working with children,” she stressed. There will not be enough funding if you hire staff for work exclusively with completed education.
But it is possible to trust children with junior counselors without specialized education only if there are experienced mentors next to them, the parliamentarians are sure. And here, according to Popova, changes in regulations are needed. The fact is that today educators are not always assigned to the detachments - their number remains at the discretion of the camp leader, and the counselor, if, for example, a sophomore student, cannot be responsible for the life and health of children.
It is necessary to oblige the leaders of the camps to assign a teacher, educator or even a counselor to each detachment, but only if he has sufficient qualifications, the parliamentarian is convinced. This can be done by developing requirements for the teaching staff of the camps or changing professional standards, she added.
Regions, starting from January, will begin to prepare for the summer health campaign. What it will be depends, among other things, on the laws and acts of the Government, which will come into force in the near future. They will be able to both strengthen the powers of the regions, and, conversely, unify the norms regarding children's recreation with federal laws in order to bring the quality of work of health organizations to a single denominator throughout Russia.