On the eve of the period when the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) traditionally rises, pediatrician Olga Zaitseva and child psychologist Lyudmila Petranovskaya discussed methods of treatment and prevention of seasonal colds with journalists. The meeting was initiated by the pharmaceutical company Gedeon Richter.
Influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) account for more than 90% of all infectious diseases. In the Russian Federation, about 20-40 million people fall ill with them a year, with 40-60% of children.
The incidence of ARVI has a pronounced seasonal character. In recent years, it occurs at the end of autumn and beginning of winter with a peak in January-February. In children, ARVI is recorded almost 13 times more often than in adults: on average, about 75% of children get sick a year, while in adults - 6%. The main reasons are related to the fact that the child's immunity is not yet strong enough, therefore, children under the age of 5 are included in the risk group for developing a serious illness or complications as a result of the disease, on an equal basis with pregnant women, the elderly, people with chronic health problems and weakened immunity.
Most often, a child encounters a viral infection in kindergarten and school: in the first year of attending kindergarten, the child is sick more than in all subsequent years. This is how immunity to viruses is developed. This is due to the ease and speed of transmission of infection, especially in crowded places. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, small droplets containing the virus are released into the air and can spread up to one meter and infect nearby people who inhale them. The infection can also be transmitted by hands contaminated with influenza viruses or household surfaces. Virus particles can remain highly active on doorknobs, subway handrails, telephones, keyboards, banknotes, and other media for several hours, even at low temperatures. At the same time, smooth surfaces (for example, handrails) are more dangerous than porous ones (soft toys, fabric, etc.) - probably due to the fact that it is more difficult for viral particles to get onto your hands with the latter.
Zaitseva Olga Vitalievna, head. Department of Pediatrics, Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences:
“A child can get sick 6 times a year, but if he has a good immune response and the disease proceeds without complications, there is no need to do anything with him, the body will cope on its own and will only strengthen the immune system. Or it can hurt only three times, but each time for a long time and with complications. Then treatment with direct antiviral drugs is necessary. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, treatment should be started within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms, often without specifying the type of virus. After two days, taking the medicine also makes sense, in this case it will be aimed at preventing complications. Folk remedies (tea with lemon, compotes, etc.) will not harm - they will give a good amount of liquid and additionally a small amount of vitamin C."
When choosing an antiviral medicine for a child, pay attention to what he should:
Act against a wide range of viruses
Regulate the body's immune response
Be Safe, Clinically Proven
Reduce the duration of the disease
Reduce the risk of complications
Reduce the number of relapses
Be child-friendly (preferably syrup)
Free from alcohol, dyes and fragrances (to reduce the likelihood of an allergic reaction)
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY HERE?
An equally important condition for a strong immunity of a child is a healthy psychological atmosphere in the house. Children are, in a sense, a litmus test of family relationships. In a house where relations between all members are broken, children usually grow up, prone to whims and tantrums. And according to research by the Institute of Biomedical Problems, there is a direct relationship between the level of anxiety of a person and his immunity.
Lyudmila Petranovskaya, child psychologist:
“When there is a calm, trusting relationship in the house, then the current illness is easier for the child. Sometimes ARVI is just ARVI. Therefore, first of all, I advise parents to be calm, not to fall into hysterics - children need support, and if adults cannot cope with their own emotions, what can we say about helping the child?
WHAT ELSE CAN YOU DO FOR CHILD HEALTH?
Deal with myths and reality:
Don't exaggerate the importance of garlic.
In folk medicine, it is eaten, and the juice is buried in the nose, and worn around the neck, but there is no reliable medical research proving its effectiveness.
Use seawater instead of oxolinic ointment
… Sometimes oxolinic ointment is recommended as a preventive measure - it protects the nasal mucosa and prevents viruses from entering the body. At the same time, due to the specificity of the action, the ointment collects all the microbes on itself, creating a whole focus of microorganisms. And since almost no one regularly rinses the nose from the ointment, microbes remain in the nose, multiply and spread further. It is better to use a saline solution - regularly rinsing the nasal passages clears them of mucus and prevents the disease from spreading deeper. As a rule, a concentration of 0.9% is used for prevention, and 3.4% for medicinal purposes.
Drink plenty of warm liquids
… Tea with lemon, berry compotes, broths will do. However, at the same time, you do not need to get carried away and force the sick child to drink, because in this case the body will only respond with an emetic reaction. It is worth giving a drink in small portions with regular breaks; you can use a special plastic syringe for this, which is in some medicines for children.
Start taking antiviral drugs
in the first 48 hours after the onset of symptoms of a viral infection. There is no need to think that such treatment is recommended only in Russia: inosine pranobex, for example, is registered as an antiviral immunomodulatory drug in 70 countries of the world, including the countries of the European Union.
Vitamin C is definitely needed
because ascorbic acid is quickly consumed during illness. But you should carefully dose its amount. Taking a large amount of vitamin C from viruses will not save, but at the same time it can lead to complications - the development of urolithiasis.
From a physical point of view:
Dress appropriately for the weather
: in cold weather you need to dress warmer, but do not wrap the child, when it is already warm - overheating also reduces immunity.
Walk more in the fresh air, ventilate the room. During airing, the child should be dressed according to the room temperature.
Temper healthy children
… Hardening increases the immunity of strong, healthy children, if you approach it gradually, without sudden changes in temperature. It is not necessary to harden an already ill child.
Monitor the health of the nasopharynx and oral cavity
… This is the gateway to infection, the poor condition of which will not be able to resist the disease. If the child is often sick, visit the otolaryngologist and dentist - is everything okay?
From a psychological point of view:
- be a support for your child, then it will be easier for him to cope with the disease.
Remember about yourself
… That is, by your own example, show what a healthy lifestyle is: adequate sleep, positive thinking, walking in the fresh air, good nutrition. It is especially important not to forget about this during the period of the child's illness. You should not enter the role of an overly anxious parent - the child may decide that he brings too many problems to mom or dad, which will not affect his well-being in the best way.
Don't blame yourself.
If a child is sick again, parents should not blame themselves for the fact that this is due to a lack of attention to him or love. Most likely, the disease arose for objective reasons.
If the child is often sick, and the attending physician does not find the objective causes of the disease, it is worth trying
consult a psychologist
… Perhaps the child succumbs to illness for psychosomatic reasons.